Activity

Activity is vital to living well and preventing frailty, and it’s never too late to start! Activity plays an important role in frailty prevention, but it has also been shown to help reverse the effects of frailty in older adults.

Physical Activity and Frailty: What do we Know?

Physical activity is as an umbrella term for being active. It includes exercise (a planned, structured, repetitive and deliberate program) as well as leisure time activities.

Everyone benefits from physical activity:

  • Adults at risk of frailty and those living with frailty
  • Adults living in long term care, including those at the extremes of age
  • Hospitalized adults, including those who are critically ill

Experimental trials have shown that even individuals living with frailty can improve their physical function, helping them to minimize and delay aging-related declines. Aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and multi-component physical activity programs all demonstrate benefits. The improvements appear to be somewhat greater with activity programs that include specific muscle strengthening and balance training activities.

Physical activity has many benefits. Even moderate but regular exercise can produce improvements, and adjusting exercises for your ability and fitness levels is important.

Benefits include:

  • Improves ability to perform daily tasks
  • Helps prevent weak bones and muscle loss
  • Improves joint mobility
  • Improves sleep quality
  • Reduces the risk of chronic conditions
  • Extends years of activity and independent living
  • Lowers risk of dementia
  • Reduces likelihood of falling and risk of serious injury if you do fall

There is well-documented evidence that muscle strength decreases with advancing age. Muscle strength decreases approximately 12% to 15% each decade after the age of 50 in both males and females.

Many people know that strength training can help build and maintain muscle mass and strength even into old age. What many of us don’t know is that strong muscles also keep our bones strong. Stronger bones are less likely to break as we age, and keeping our muscles and bones strong is very important for mobility into old age.

The effect of physical activity on physical function is of high importance to older adults living with frailty. Evidence suggests the effects of physical activity are greater in older adults living with frailty compared to non-frail older adults.

For the maximum health benefit, a combination of activities is best!

Try to vary your activities so that you’re building endurance (good for your heart and lungs), strength (good for muscles and bones), flexibility and balance (good for mobility into older age).

Multi-component physical activity training is better than any one type of activity. Multi-component activities include a combination of activity types, such as:

Aerobic exercise (or endurance activities):

  • Gets your heart pumping and supplies oxygen to your brain and organs
  • Involves many repetitions and use of large muscle groups: walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, taking a dance class,  pushing a lawn mower
  • Aim to do these at least 20-30 minutes per day at a moderate intensity

Strength exercise:

  • Make muscles do more work than they are used to doing during activities of daily living
  • Weight training with free weights, weight machines, resistance bands or even just your own body weight
  • Aim to do strength exercises 2 days/week
  • Key to building strength is that you must make your exercise program more difficult week by week and month by month. This is called progression.

Possible ways to challenge yourself with muscle-strengthening activities:

  • Increase the number of repetitions (but no more than 12)
  • Increase the number of sets
  • Increase the resistance
  • Increase the number of muscle groups or exercises
  • Resistance exercise training has been found to increase strength in older adults. In fact, there have been multiple studies demonstrating that these changes can occur even into one’s 90s

Flexibility exercise:

  • Stretches your muscles to help your body stay flexible
  • Being flexible gives you more freedom of movement, which benefits your everyday activities and other forms of exercise
  • Challenge your flexibility and balance with exercises like yoga, leg raises, swimming, and tai chi

Balance exercise:

  • Strengthens the muscles that help keep you upright, including your legs and core
  • These kinds of exercises can improve stability and help prevent falls

Functional exercise:

  • Trains your muscles to work together and prepares them for daily tasks by reproducing common movements you might do during everyday living
  • Involves using various muscles in the upper and lower body at the same time

Endurance

Strength

Flexibility

Balance

How Can I Get Active?

Health Canada recommends that older adults take part in physical activity at least 2.5 hours per week—so thirty minutes each day—which you can break into 10 minute intervals: minutes count!

Start with doing activities that you enjoy: dance, gardening, etc. Even daily chores count as activity: walking to get the mail, mopping the floor, carrying groceries, etc.

After being physically active, it is important to recover and recharge our body systems. Learn more about how to get the best sleep possible.

A Scoping Review of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Frailty Project

The Jintronix Technology in Emergency Departments Project

E-CYCLE Project

Intensive Resistance Training in Pre-frail Older Adults Project

Exercise Before Surgery for Older People with Frailty Project

The Breaking “Bad Rest” Study

Promoting Movement in Older Adults in the Community Project

Stand If You Can Project

 

Principal Investigator: Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, PhD

Principal Investigator: Susan Baptiste, MSc, OT(C)

Principal Investigator: Danielle Bouchard, PhD, MSc

Principal Investigator: Lora Giangregorio, PhD

Principal Investigator: Michelle Kho, PhD, PT

Principal Investigator: Barbara Liu, MD, FRCPC

Principal Investigator: Laurie Mallery, MD

Principal Investigator: Daniel McIsaac, MD, MPH, FRCPC

Principal Investigator: Marie-Josée Sirois, OT, PhD

Principal Investigator: Ada Tang, PT, PhD, MSc

Principal Investigator: Olga Theou, PhD

Interdisciplinary Fellowship Program Supervisor: Sandra Hundza, BSc(PT), PhD

Board of Directors Member and Citizen Engagement Committee Chair: Joyce Resin, MSW

Citizen Engagement Committee Member: Chelsia Gillis, RD, PhD(c)

International Scientific Advisory Committee Member: Matteo Cesari, MD, PhD

International Scientific Advisory Committee Member: Fabian Chin Leong Lim, BSc, MSc, MBA, PhD

Network Member: Vanina dal Bello-Haas, PhD, PT

 

Network Partner: Heart & Stroke Foundation

Network Partner: Reh-Fit Centre

Network Partner: Canadian Physiotherapy Association

 

Innovations Presented at CFN’s Annual Conference

2019:

ABLE – Arts-Based exercise enhancing LongEvity

2018:
ABLE –Arts-Based exercise enhancing LongEvity (p. 16)

The Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders (MOVE) Program (p. 27)

Elders in Motion (p. 29)

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These are general health guidelines and should not be considered personal medical advice. Speak to your doctor before starting any new exercise programs. You should consult your health care provider and discuss each element outlined above to ensure that each element of the AVOID Frailty campaign is personally customized for you.